Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends Handbook, March 2021
Durham Friends Meeting is a member meeting of New England Yearly Meeting. New England Yearly Meeting has a Faith and Practice which communicates “to members and inquirers the historic and continuing faith of Friends and outlines procedures to be followed by meetings regarding membership, organization, the conduct of their affairs, and the concerns of the Society.”
This Handbook states the particular policies and procedures of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends within the overall guidance of The Faith and Practice of the New England Yearly Meeting of Friends.
Purpose and Goals
Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends is a community discerning and serving the will of God. Our understanding of God comes through corporate worship, study of the Bible and other literature, a sense of God through Jesus Christ, through continuing revelation, and in confirming experiences, many of which we share with one another. The Meeting seeks to provide opportunities for the individual to grow in faith and in expressing that faith. For these purposes it is important for us to attend Meeting for Worship and Monthly Meeting for Business, to support the Meeting financially, to serve on committees as time and energy allow, and to take part in opportunities provided by the Meeting for worship, study, and fellowship with others.
The Meeting strives to be a supportive community for those in it. Those in the Meeting should be aware of its involvement in Friends groups at many levels beyond our own community: i.e., Falmouth Quarterly Meeting, Friends Committee on Maine Public Policy, New England Yearly Meeting of Friends, Friends United Meeting, Friends General Conference, American Friends Service Committee, Friends Committee on National Legislation, Friends World Committee for Consultation, and United Society of Friends Women International. The Meeting is a member of the Brunswick Area Interfaith Council and the Lisbon Area Christian Outreach.
Membership in the Society of Friends is in a Monthly Meeting. Anyone who has faith in God and understands the precepts of the Bible, who wants to follow the life and teachings of Jesus under the guidance and authority of the Light Within, and who feels comfortable in the Meeting community is encouraged to apply for membership. If already a member of another Friends Meeting, the person should write for a letter of transfer to be sent to the Clerk of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends. If an individual has been a member of another faith group, that connection and an appropriate communication with that group will be discussed in the clearness process. The Monthly Meeting acts on the recommendation of Ministry and Counsel after it has acquainted itself with the person and his/her religious/spiritual experience.
Monthly Meeting for Business
Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends meets once a month for business in accordance with Friends’ custom as stated in Faith and Practice of New England Yearly Meeting of Friends (1985). These meetings are held the third Sunday of each month after worship. Business of the Monthly Meeting includes minutes, treasurer’s reports, Ministry and Counsel reports, reports of committees as appropriate, and consideration of other concerns as they arise. Fund raising beyond the budget requires the approval of the Monthly Meeting. Committees, both standing and ad hoc, are appointed to help conduct and carry out the business of the Monthly Meeting. Concerns, issues raised, and proposed actions may be assigned to appropriate committees for “seasoning” and careful consideration. Such committees then report their recommendations back to Monthly Meeting for further action. Committees also present to Monthly Meeting concerns that they have discerned, and proposed actions.
It is recommended that an agenda be sent out previous to Monthly Meeting; and that substantive materials (reports, proposals, etc.), from committees and individuals be sent as email attachments or made available on the website. The Meeting will generally consider only matters that have been first considered and brought forward by a committee appointed by the Meeting. Generally the Meeting will not make a decision the first time a matter is brought forward but rather allow it to season for a month.
The Clerk or a Co-Clerk of the Monthly Meeting develops an agenda, presides at the Monthly Meeting for Business, and takes care of correspondence and the details of the business items unless such responsibilities are delegated to others. The Clerk or Co-Clerks must also be members of the Monthly Meeting.
The Recording Clerk makes a record of the minutes and reports of the Monthly Meeting. In preparation for archival storage the minutes are recorded on acid-free paper. Periodically the minutes are bound and copies are made for Durham Monthly Meeting, the New England Yearly Meeting Archives, and the originals are deposited at the Maine Historical Society in Portland.
Ministry and Counsel
Monthly Meeting appoints at least six members to Ministry and Counsel. Members of Ministry and Counsel must also be members of the Meeting. The Youth Minister, Meeting Care Coordinator, and Meeting Clerk meet with the committee. Recorded ministers who are members of the Meeting are ex officio members of M&C. Representatives are appointed to attend and report back on Quarterly Meeting and New England Yearly Meeting Ministry and Counsel sessions.
The primary functions of Ministry and Counsel are to oversee and to nurture the spiritual life of the Meeting. Visiting within the Meeting community, especially but not limited to those who have a particular need, shall be a high priority. Ministry and Counsel shall encourage, nurture, and support visiting by others in the Meeting community. Ministry and Counsel shall encourage members and attenders to develop their skills and leadings in the many facets of the mission of the Meeting.
M&C oversees Meeting for Worship, encouraging members and attenders to share messages and care of worship. M&C oversees the instruction of attenders and others who show an interest in the Meeting and considers applications for membership and, if favorable, recommends that the Monthly Meeting accept the applicant as a member. M&C prepares an annual state of the society report, which is forwarded to the Monthly Meeting for its consideration by April and then sent on to the Yearly Meeting Ministry and Counsel and Falmouth Quarterly Meeting.
M&C should appoint annually one of its members to be clerk to preside at its meetings and a recording clerk to keep minutes of proceedings. Meetings are held regularly each month. Special meetings may be called by the clerk of M&C on request of three members of Ministry and Counsel.
Meeting Care Coordinator
The Meeting Care Coordinator and members of M&C share responsibility for attending to individual pastoral care needs of the Meeting. The Meeting Care Coordinator would help ensure that those needing visits or special care have their needs met, and help maintain connection with those who may seem to be drifting away. The Meeting Care Coordinator would assist M&C or take the lead in contacting members to find message givers for each Sunday worship. The MCC helps coordinate prayer groups and prayer partners, as needed. The MCC also maintains coordination with the Youth Minister. The MCC provides assistance, as needed, in scheduling and communicating about these events and in coordinating with other churches or organizations with similar concerns. The MCC would also provide follow-up with visitors to the Meeting. Committee meetings to attend to gain clarity on the above are Clerks Committee, M&C, Monthly Meeting, and Peace and Social Concerns.
In the past the Meeting hired pastors who have inspired, encouraged, and challenged the community. After an extended trial period beginning in 2017, we explored the feasibility of continuing as a semi-programmed Meeting without a pastor and found that we continued to experience the life of the spirit within the Meeting, without having a paid pastor. We have adopted this practice for now, allowing financial resources to be used in other ways as the Meeting is led.
Christian Education Committee
The Christian Education Committee provides the leadership and resources for each participant in the Meeting community to grow in the knowledge, understanding, and commitment to his/her personal faith and our shared faith tradition.
Specific committee responsibilities include, but are not limited to:
- Oversight of the youth minister role as consistent with the agreement, which includes the committee’s responsibility for assessing whether the youth minister has met the expectations in the agreement. This includes appointment and responsibility for the Youth Minister Care and Oversight committee and support for the youth minister.
- Responsibility for Sunday School for all ages, with an appropriate planned or purchased curriculum in consultation and with support from the youth minister. Support for Sunday school teachers, including: providing opportunities for leadership training relating to Christian Education, maintaining necessary supplies, and maintaining a directory of all the children in the Meeting.
- Encouragement for the use of resources of the Meeting for study (library and curriculum library), different methods of instruction (flannel boards, maps, audio-visual equipment), grounds around buildings (cemetery, trails).
- Utilization and dissemination to the Meeting of resources from the Yearly Meeting (e.g., through its Christian Education Committee), Friends General Conference and Friends United Meeting.
- Communication with the Meeting at large regarding the Sunday School programs, special programs, providing Bibles or devotional books for each child in middle elementary school and/or graduates.
- Study groups as the need arises.
- Education about and opportunities for involvement in Friends work outside the local Meeting, including overseas work.
The Christian Education Committee is made up of approximately six named members and all of the Sunday school teachers. The youth minister is an ex officio member. The committee choses a clerk from among its members and prepares an annual report for the January Monthly Meeting for Business.
The Youth Minister has a flexible function within the Meeting. Within set priorities, the youth minister may shift emphasis over time to address the varying needs of our children and changing capacity of the Meeting to address those needs. Work is done with the Christian Education Committee, Ministry and Counsel, and interested individuals to support the children of the Meeting in their spiritual growth and connection to the Meeting. The youth minister works on a variety of activities for children, including the Sunday School, a youth group, camp outs, participation in New England Yearly Meeting, etc., and helps others who are led to develop their ministry with children.
The youth minister participates in Monthly Meeting and regional Meetings and workshops concerning Christian Education and youth ministry. Reports are made to the Christian Education Committee, and support is received from a Care and Oversight Committee made up of members from Christian Education, Ministry and Counsel, and the Meeting at large.
Peace and Social Concerns Committee
The task of the Peace and Social Concerns Committee is twofold: discernment and taking action.
The process of discernment consists of:
- Determining what issues confronting our present social order pertain to Friends’ traditional testimonies of equality, peace and non-violence, stewardship, and civic and community responsibility.
- Hearing the concerns of the Monthly Meeting or individual members of the Meeting and those brought by other religious, service and legislative bodies that address these issues.
As action is considered the committee seeks to make recommendations to Monthly Meeting for supportive action in order to:
- Educate the Meeting regarding Friends’ traditional testimonies and their application in the world, especially addressing the issues of violence, discrimination, addictions and poverty.
- Enable the Monthly Meeting and individuals to take action regarding their concerns.
- Support those who are suffering because of actions they have taken in support of their concerns.
- Act in solidarity with those who are affected by our failure to achieve a society of non-violence, equality, economic justice and equal opportunity.
The committee seeks to work in cooperation with other committees of the Monthly Meeting, other Monthly Meetings and community groups that work constructively on these issues. The committee choses a clerk from among its members and prepares an annual report for the January Monthly Meeting for Business.
The Communications Committee oversees several forms of communication within the Meeting community and reaches out to the wider world. The Meeting has a monthly newsletter called The Best of Friends, a website, a Facebook page, a phone tree, and an email list for of-the-moment updates called Friends Notes. Committee members update the website, assemble, edit, and distribute the newsletter, post to Facebook, initiate the phone tree, and send Friends Notes when needed.
The newsletter and website both carry news of the Meeting, with a more limited amount of information shared on Facebook. The newsletter is published monthly. The website is updated regularly as information, news, messages, and articles become available. Both contain information about Sunday Meeting for Worship, other scheduled events, and outside events of interest, as well as reports from committees, personal news about members and attenders, news of the financial state of the Meeting, any applicable artwork or photographs, and any articles that members or attenders may to submit.
Committee members each take on a role with the newsletter, the website, the Facebook page, or the phone tree. Those working with the newsletter and website solicit and collect Sunday messages, articles, news, and other information for dissemination. The newsletter is distributed in both electronic and print formats by the committee. Extra copies of the printed newsletter are available at the meetinghouse. The newsletter is also edited for personal identifying information and posted to the website.
The committee choses a clerk from among its members and prepares an annual report for the January Monthly Meeting for Business.
In 1833 Durham Friends realized the value of reading Quaker histories and biographies if a firm foundation was to be laid for continuance of Friends’ ideals. A librarian was appointed, and a library started.
The continued purpose of the library is to provide reading and teaching materials. The library has grown to be a well-rounded collection of Quaker-related materials as well as religious, socially concerned, children/youth and fiction books. Books should be signed out and brought back in a timely manner. All members and attenders should find the library a source of enrichment. All gift books and other materials should be given to the Library Committee. The Library Committee is responsible for maintaining the library by purchasing, receiving, and processing new books, discarding worn copies as needed, and keeping the bookshelves and card catalog in order and up to date, so that specific books can be easily found.
The committee choses a clerk from among its members and prepares an annual report for the January Monthly Meeting for Business.
The Music Committee coordinates music (choirs, etc.), accompanies hymn singing, and provides offertory music for Sunday Meeting for Worship.
Committees for Special Purposes
The Monthly Meeting may appoint committees for special purposes. A Clearness Committee is a unique and essential part of Quaker process, used to assist in the following of a leading or in a period of transition. Clearness Committees for membership or marriage are the responsibility of Ministry and Counsel. All other requests for a Clearness Committee can be made to Monthly Meeting or to Ministry and Counsel.
Woman’s Society of Durham Friends
All resident women members of the Monthly Meeting are members of the Woman’s Society, plus other women who choose to participate. The Society meets once a month for worship, program, business and fellowship. The Society seeks to provide inspiration, education, and opportunity for women to share in the mission of the Meeting. The Society gives spiritual and financial support to a number of domestic and international programs and projects. The Society is a part of United Society of Friends Women International.
Contact Persons to Wider Quaker Organizations
A contact person is named to be a liaison with Friends Committee on Maine Public Policy, Friends Committee on National Legislation, Friends United Meeting and Friends General Conference. This person receives information on relevant issues and updates from the respective organization and passes this information on to the members of the Meeting in ways most appropriate; e.g., posted or spoken announcements, individual contact or newsletter articles. The contact person keeps available pamphlets and newsletters.
The Recorder keeps a record of each member and of all changes in membership, such as births, marriages, deaths, applications, and transfers. Records should be kept in a form approved by New England Yearly Meeting. No recorder’s pages are destroyed but are kept for archival purposes. A statistical report is prepared each year for the Monthly Meeting and the Yearly Meeting. It is recommended that the Recorder issue annually to the membership an up-to-date list of names and addresses of all members. Once every tenth year an up-to-date list of the membership is to be attached to the Recording Clerk’s records (started in 2007).
The Nominating Committee makes nominations to the December Monthly Meeting for officers, committees, and others as directed by the Monthly Meeting and other nominations as necessary throughout the year. Nominees are named on a three-year rotating basis so that not all appointments must be renewed or filled each year. An appointee may serve two consecutive terms on a committee. After one year off the committee, that person may be re-appointed to that committee.
The committee members confer with proposed nominees before names are presented to the Monthly Meeting for appointment. Any member of the Meeting may suggest changes in the nominations. Nominees are members or regular attenders of the Monthly Meeting. Only members may be appointed to Trustees, Ministry and Counsel, and as Clerk.
The Nominating Committee does not remove any member with an unexpired term without approval of Monthly Meeting.
The Nominating Committee is appointed directly by the Monthly Meeting. There are three members, one of whom is appointed each year for a three-year term. A member may serve for a second consecutive three-year term. Members of the Nominating Committee are chosen with regard to their discernment, seasoned judgment, and general knowledge of the membership of the Meeting. The committee choses a clerk from among its members. Their roster of committee members, officers and others represents the work they have accomplished for the year.
The Finance Committee prepares a budget for consideration and approval at the January Monthly Meeting, to be in effect for the calendar year. The approved budget will be circulated to the members and attenders. The committee keeps records of all financial transactions (except cemetery funds). The treasurer, appointed by Monthly Meeting, takes direction from the Finance Committee. The committee choses a clerk from among its members and prepares an annual report for the January Monthly Meeting for Business.
The Treasurer receives and disburses funds as the Meeting directs, keeps the account books of the Meeting and reports regularly to it. These accounts are to be audited annually. The Treasurer may pay current bills under the budget without further approval of Monthly Meeting. All other bills are to be presented and approved by Monthly Meeting. With the approval of the Finance Committee, the Treasurer may open and close bank accounts. The Monthly Meeting shall appoint an alternate signer of all bank accounts.
Books of the Treasurer and of the Trustees are audited. The Auditor reviews the documentation and bank statements to ascertain that vouchers, checks and deposits agree with the Treasurer’s statements. If such records are in agreement, organized and accessible, then the Auditor certifies to the Monthly Meeting for Business the correctness of the accounts.
Tax Exempt Status
Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends, of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), is recognized by the IRS as exempt from federal income tax under IRC Section 501(c)(3), and is included in the group exemption ruling of the New England Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. Detailed information is filed at the meetinghouse.
Durham Monthly Meeting Funds: Funds managed by the Meeting.
- Charity Account: Established by the Meeting by tithing 10 percent of the sale of various stocks owned by the Meeting, to be used for unique charitable requests and to support ministry or leadings within certain guidelines. Money is added to the fund when our financial situation permits. See below for a detailed description of guidelines.
- Capital Account: Used to pay for major repairs and capital improvements on the meetinghouse and the parsonage. The Monthly Meeting has authorized deposits into this account from income received beyond the budgetary needs of the Meeting. Examples are the income from the harvesting of the woodlot, and the sale of property.
- Bernice Douglas Fund: Established by the Douglas family to honor Bernice Douglas, a long-time member of Durham Meeting. She also left money to the Meeting, which was deposited in this fund. The funds are not restricted or designated. However, the Monthly Meeting has often drawn on this fund to support capital type improvements, or as loans to ourselves for such purposes, in recognition of the Douglas family’s dedication to good stewardship of our properties.
- Woodbury Fund: Established with funds given to the Meeting by Vivian Woodbury, a long-time member of Durham Meeting. The funds are not restricted, but the Monthly Meeting has designated this fund for Youth work, a tribute to her love of and devotion to the youth in our Meeting.
New England Yearly Meeting Pooled Funds: Stock funds managed by New England Yearly Meeting of Friends:
- Goddard Fund: Established to receive funds left to Durham Meeting by the Goddard family. The original bequest was restricted. The amount was not clear, as the funds were distributed to Durham over time. The principal has been established as approximately $85,000.00.
- Douglas Fund: Established by the Douglas family to honor Bernice Douglas. The fund is not restricted or designated by the Meeting.
Charity Account Guidelines
The Charity Account is to be administered, after careful consideration of each unique situation, for both Charitable Requests and Supported Ministry (Leadings) purposes.
In terms of Supported Ministry (Leadings), coming from members or regular attenders, the request, with an amount included, will be brought to a standing Meeting committee first to prayerfully consider said request for funds. If the Meeting committee finds clearness in the request, the committee can then bring the request to Monthly Meeting, with the request added to an agenda that is distributed ahead of the Monthly Meeting.
In considering proposals to support a ministry, we recommend the following criteria:
- Alignment of the ministry with the faith and practice of Friends, including the Testimonies.
- The character and integrity of the person or group seeking support.
- The merit and validity of the request. In other words, does this ministry help to deepen and promote the life, not only of the individual or group, but of the whole Meeting as well?
In terms of Charitable Requests, a request, with an amount included, will be brought to a standing Meeting committee first to prayerfully consider said request for funds. If the Meeting committee finds clearness in the request, the committee can then bring the request to Monthly Meeting, with the request added to an agenda, distributed ahead of the Monthly Meeting.
In the case of a time sensitive situation, a request for financial assistance, with an amount included, can be brought to the Monthly Meeting by a Meeting committee, where it would be tended, weighed and prayerfully decided at the next Monthly Meeting. In this case the request would be communicated to the Meeting community ahead of time.
In the case of a true emergency, a request, with an amount included, can be brought to the clerk of the Meeting, along with the clerk of Ministry and Counsel and the clerk of Finance, who can then direct the allocation of funds from the Charity Account, and report to the next Monthly Meeting.
In general, the Charity Account will not be a source of funding for Quaker organizations and causes such as FCNL, AFSC, QUNO, NEYM, Tedford Housing, or LACO, as these are included in the annual budget as contributions.
Requests for funds will generally be no greater than $1,000.00.
Trustees have charge of the property of the Monthly Meeting. They are responsible for the care of the buildings and grounds, cemeteries, and any special funds for the care of the cemeteries. The Trustees’ financial records are to be audited annually. Periodically the Trustees review the Meeting’s insurance coverage and make recommendations to the Monthly Meeting. The Trustees, in conjunction with the Finance Committee and Auditor, will prepare a detailed report of all assets (including invested funds, property, and cemetery funds) and present to Monthly Meeting and New England Yearly Meeting at least every ten years (start in 2011).
The Trustees plan for workdays to accomplish cleaning, outside clean up, and special projects. They hire work done when that is necessary, asking in advance for any funds needed above budgeted amounts, except in emergencies. They arrange to have the lawns at the meetinghouse and parsonage mowed, as well as the cemeteries, and arrange for snow to be plowed. The Trustees contract for custodial service with continuing oversight, and perform other duties as assigned by the Monthly Meeting.
Members of Trustees must be members of the Meeting. The committee choses a clerk from among its members and prepares an annual report for the January Monthly Meeting for Business.
The janitor is responsible for keeping the meetinghouse neat and ready for regular and special events, turning up the heat when needed. The janitor may also call, from the list approved by the Trustees, for the service people to attend to emergencies.
Guidelines for Use of Durham Friends Meetinghouse
The Trustees of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends are delegated the responsibility for the use of the meetinghouse. All meetings should be recorded on the calendar on the bulletin board at the entry to the worship room and on the Meeting Google calendar. Regular meetings for worship and groups within the Meeting may use the meetinghouse as a meeting place without further authorization (e.g., Ministry and Counsel, Monthly Meeting, Woman’s Society, youth fellowship, and other committees of the Meeting). A request for the use of the meetinghouse for a single occasion should be made to the Trustee(s) delegated to receive this request. The Trustee(s) will consult the calendar and two other Trustees before permission is granted.
A request by a group outside the Meeting for use of the meetinghouse on a fairly regular basis over a period of time should be made to the Clerk of the Monthly Meeting, or the delegate Trustee(s), who will bring the matter before the Monthly Meeting. The Monthly Meeting will make the decision. For use of the building and grounds, the Trustees ask that a donation be given to a Trustee member or put in the committee depository (piano bench). No smoking and no alcoholic beverages are permitted in buildings or on the property.
Instructions Regarding How to Leave the Meetinghouse
The meetinghouse must be left as found, replacing everything used, and cleaning, taking down all but two tables in the fellowship room. When heat is on in cold weather, before leaving read and follow directions near the thermostats. The children’s room thermostat should be set at 55 degrees. Leave doors open to the children’s rooms, children’s bathroom, kitchen and hallway bathrooms. Leave both divider curtains in the fellowship room open. Check stove to be sure all burners are off. And be sure all faucets are turned off and that no toilet is running. Turn off all lights. Emergency lights will come on automatically. Lock back and front doors.
Lunt Memorial Cemetery of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends
Single, two, and four-grave lots are available in Lunt Memorial Cemetery. For members of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends, the charge is only the cost of perpetual care. For non-members who are residents of the community of the Friends Meeting and for certain other non-members under special circumstances allowed by the Trustees of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends, lots are available at prices shown below.
Lot Price Perpetual Care Total
Single grave lot (4′´10′) $ 150.00 $ 200.00 $ 350.00
Double lot (10′´10′) $ 200.00 $ 400.00 $ 600.00
Large lot (10′´20′) $ 350.00 $ 650.00 $ 1,000.00
Family lot (20′´20′) $ 600.00 $ 900.00 $ 1,500.00
A lot may be transferred from the owner to another only with the approval of the Trustee in charge of the Cemetery. If a lot is unused and a written request to return the lot is sent to the Trustees of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends within ten years of purchase, all of the Perpetual Care cost and half of the purchase price (Lot Price) will be refunded.
Green Burial Lot Agreement
Single lots are available for purchase in Lunt Memorial Cemetery. Each lot measures 4′´8′, allowing room for a small marker and flowers. The charge for members of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends is $200.00; the charge for non-members is $350.00.
A lot may be transferred from one owner to another, only with the approval of the Trustee in charge of the Cemetery. If a lot is unused and a written request to return the lot is sent to the Trustees of Durham Monthly Meeting of Friends within ten years of purchase, half of the purchase price will be refunded.
A green burial is an unencumbered burial. There is no embalming and no need for a commercial casket. The body may be wrapped in a cotton shroud or other decomposable fabric and placed directly in the ground or placed in a plain wooden box and placed in the ground. The required depth for the green burial is three feet.
Care of Lots
- Simple stones and monuments will be in keeping with the Cemetery, and should be oriented parallel to Lunt Road.
- Simple decorations are permissible. Decorations should be in good taste and in keeping with the Cemetery. Decorations deemed not in keeping with the Cemetery will be removed.
- Seasonal decorations and silk/plastic flowers will be removed periodically.
- Lot owners may bury multiple urns on a lot, with or without professional assistance.
- Lot owners may spread ashes as they choose.
- No woody plants may be planted on lots (existing woody plants will be handled on a case-by-case basis).
- Plantings by owners should be in good taste and plantings of any kind that become overgrown will be removed.
- Perpetual Care provides for six mowings per year, trimming and edging as needed and grading and seeding when necessary.
CEMETERY LOT AGREEMENT
Lot # ________________ Member___________ Non Member ______________
I have read the cemetery guidelines and accept the provisions of this agreement:
Print Name: __________________________________________________
On the date of __________________, Received $ __________________________